RFQ,RFI,RFT,RFP Full Description in easy words for all India heavy road transportation Service Industry

RFQ,RFI,RFT,RFP Full Description in easy words
RFQ,RFI,RFT,RFP Full Description in easy words
मित्रो अतिमहत्वाकांक्षा चाटुकारिता अन्धविश्वास  और  विश्वासघात ने  हमारी धमनियों में घर कर लिया  है | हमारे यहाँ विभीषणों की भरमार है | हम अपने हजारो वर्षो के गौरवशाली इतिहार को भुला कर राजा भरत के भारत की उपेक्षा कर ५०० वर्षो की मुगलिया सल्तनत से मिले हिंदुस्तानी या गद्दार और चोर अंग्रेजी सरकार के इंडस नदी से उपजे इंडियंस को सुनकर गौरवान्वित होते है |अंग्रेजी सभ्यता का दासत्व हमपर ऐसा छाया की हम खुद को भूल गए | व्यापारिक परिवेश भी इससे अछूता नहीं .परिवहन और वर्त्तमान पूंजीवादी कारख़ानी व्यवस्था में औपचारिकता से सारे अनौपचारिक कार्य किये जाते है और इसे धूर्त गण बिज़नेस की संज्ञा से सम्बोधित करते है |
      बड़े अधिकारी मोटे वेतन के बाद भी अपना सारा कार्य अपने जुड़े संगठनो से कराते है जिसे  R.F.Q कहते है |
जिसका बीभत्स प्रारूप कुछ इस प्रकार है –

RFI – Request for Information
An open enquiry that spans the market seeking broad data and understanding.

RFQ – Request for Quotation
An opportunity for potential suppliers to competitively cost the final chosen solution(s).

RFT – Request for Tender
An opportunity for potential suppliers to submit an offer to supply goods or services against a detailed tender.

RFP – Request for Proposal
Sometimes based on a prior RFI; a business requirements-based request for specific solutions to the sourcing problem.

Request For Information (RFI)

As the name suggests, procurement uses RFI’s to gather information to help decide what step to take next before embarking on negotiations. RFI’s are therefore seldom the final stage, but instead are often used in conjunction with the other three requests detailed in this article.

An RFI is a solicitation sent to a broad base of potential suppliers for the purpose of conditioning, gathering information, preparing for an RFP or RFQ, developing strategy, or building a database which will all be useful in later supplier negotiations about:

  • The suppliers, including: facilities, finances, attitudes, and motivations
  • The state of the supply market
  • Supply market dynamics
  • Trends and factors driving change
  • Alternative pricing strategies
  • Supplier competition
  • Breadth and width of product/service offerings, by supplier
  • Supplier strategic focus, business, and product plans

Procurement may use RFIs to include a detailed list of products/services for which pricing is requested. The pricing should be used for comparative purposes for later negotiation, not as the basis of negotiators buying decisions. Through analysis of RFI responses, strategic options, lower cost alternatives, and cost reduction opportunities may be identified.

Request For Quotation (RFQ)

RFQ’s are best suited to products and services that are as standardised and as commoditised as possible. Why? Procurement want to make the suppliers’ quotes comparable before negotiations begin.

An RFQ is a solicitation sent to potential suppliers containing in exacting detail a list or description of all relevant parameters of the intended purchase, such as:

  • Personnel skills, training level or competencies
  • Part descriptions/specifications or numbers
  • Quantities/Volumes
  • Description or drawings
  • Quality levels
  • Delivery requirements
  • Term of contract
  • Terms and conditions
  • Other value added requirements or terms
  • Draft contract

Price per item or per unit of service is the bottom-line with RFQ’s, with other dimensions of the negotiation deal impacting the analysis process as determined by the buyer. Supplier decisions are typically made by the procurement department following a comparison and analysis of the RFQ responses for negotiation benchmarking advantage.

RFQs are typically used as supporting documentation for sealed bids (either single-round or multi-round) and may be a logical pre-cursor to an electronic reverse auction.

Request For Tender (RFT):-

An RFT is a procurement open invitation for suppliers to respond to a defined need as opposed to a request being sent to potential suppliers. The RFT usually requests information required from a RFI. This will usually cover not only product and service offerings, but will also include information about the suitability of the business.

It is not unusual for a buyer to put out unclear or vague business requirements for an RFT. This lack of clarity on behalf of the procurement department can make it challenging for the supplier to propose a solution. This is not the best use of a RFT. RFT’s should only be used when the buyer is clear on their requirements, and is also clear on the range of possible procurement solutions that might fit the buyer’s needs, giving the buyer a negotiation advantage.

A RFT is often not a very time or cost efficient method for procurement to source supply due to its lack of defined business requirements and open invitation for suppliers to respond. Without proper procurement training however, too many buyers issue RFQ’s that are in reality RFT’s.

Request For Proposal (RFP):-

An RFP is procurement’s solicitation sent to potential suppliers with whom a creative relationship or partnership is being considered. Typically, the RFP leaves all or part of the precise structure and format of the response to the discretion of the suppliers. In fact, the creativity and innovation that suppliers choose to build into their proposals may be used to distinguish one from another. Later negotiations tend to take more time and be more wide reaching in their impact on the buyer’s business.

Effective RFPs typically reflect the negotiation strategy and short/long-term business objectives, providing detailed insight upon which suppliers will be able to offer a perspective. If there are specific problems to be addressed in the RFP response, those are described along with whatever root cause assessment is available.

With good procurement training your RFP and RFT should seek specific data, offerings and quotations, and also seek specific questions about the following to assist your later negotiations:

  • The specific items on which the suppliers are proposing
  • Business requirements
  • Performance measures
  • Information
  • Ideas
  • Instructions on how to reply
  • Due date
  • Technical and other training
  • How will we evaluate how feedback will work
  • Describe the process for selection
  • Request for cost breakdown (sometimes)
  • Communication: cover letter (sets the stage), calls in advance
  • Who to contact with questions
  • Addressee – chosen carefully

 R.F.Q –

Request for Quotation


Request FRIEND Quotation

हर अर्थ का अनर्थ  करना हमारी संस्कृति बन गयी है | हमारे कुछ महानुभाव  लगभग १५ संस्थानों से कोटेशन लेने के बाद अपने मित्रो को न्यूनतम अपेक्षित मूल्य से अवगत कराकर स्वजनों को कार्य दिलाकर अपनी श्वान समान स्वामिभक्ति में सफल होकर छोटे से लालच में अपनी और अपनी संस्था का मूल्य शुन्य करते है |भ्रस्टतंत्र  का यह असराहनीय  कार्य लगभग ९८ % उद्योगों में अपनी पकड़ मजबूत कर चूका है |
इसके निराकरण हेतु बड़ी कम्पनिया दक्षता विभाग (विजलेंस टीम ) का गठन करती है | एक अच्छे उद्योग पति और नागरिक का जागरूक होना उतना ही आवश्यक है जितना की श्वास लेना अन्यथा आप स्वयं से धोखा कर रहे हो | परिणामस्वरूप आज भारतीय कम्पनिया या तो बिक जाती है या दिवालिया हो जाती है |